One of the most exciting frontiers in cancer treatment is the field of immunotherapy where beneficial effects have been observed in a broad range of cancers. The major goal of our project is to identify the determinants of immunotherapy success in patients with head and neck cancers. We are performing a novel clinical trial with an immunotherapy-targeted agent that allows the patient’s own immune system to control their cancer. Using samples from this trial, our goal is to understand why some patients do or do not respond to immunotherapy. We have assembled a multi-disciplinary team that will use genetic and immunologic tests on patient samples to clarify which patients may actually benefit from this powerful approach. These data will allow us to define a precision approach to immunotherapy and in addition will provide an improved biologic understanding of the mechanism of immunotherapeutic modalities.