Funded by the Dick Vitale Gala and Northwestern Mutual in memory of John Saunders
Over one-quarter of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a form called core binding factor (CBF) AML. Despite intense therapy, ~30% of these patients will relapse. Thus, identifying new therapeutic targets is necessary to develop more effective, less toxic treatment regimens.
The CBF complex coordinates the expression of genes required for normal development of blood cells. CBF AMLs harbor one of two genetic changes (t(8;21) or inv(16)) that interferes with the function of the CBF complex. While often grouped together, t(8;21) and inv(16) affect different members of the CBF complex and have unique disease features, suggesting important, yet unknown, biological differences exist. Interestingly, t(8;21) AML and inv(16) AML have different combinations of other cancer-causing mutations, providing potential clues to the genesis of t(8;21) and inv(16) AML. In particular, mutations affecting another complex that regulates gene expression, called the cohesin complex, are common in t(8;21) AML, yet never occur in inv(16) AML. The frequency of cohesin mutations with t(8;21) suggests that cohesin dysfunction cooperates with t(8;21) to cause leukemia by collaboratively activating cancer-causing genes, which could represent targets for therapy. Conversely, the absence of cohesin mutations with inv(16) indicate a dependence upon intact cohesin function, and perhaps the cohesin complex itself could be targeted in inv(16) AML.
We will explore the interactions between the cohesin and the CBF complexes in AML using murine and human systems. Our study will provide novel insight into the mechanisms driving CBF AML, likely uncovering herapeutic targets for the treatment of children with this disease.